The Internet of Things
The Internet of Things
Here are two other scenarios
Siri (your refrigerator):
"Jane, you are taking the last eggs."
"Jane, you are taking the last eggs, Do you want me to order a new
supply from the supermarket?"
Who am I?
- Niels Müller Larsen
MSc in Networked Information Technology,
Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Prof @ International Business Academy, Kolding, DK
Developer. Programming and database work since 1970.
Web development. Backend, frontend, database. XML, HTML, CSS, etc.
- Intro, presentation
- Internet background, history
- Various definitions
- What do we have already?
- Where are we going?
- What are the applications?
- What will be the applications?
- What are the skills required to use it?
- Wrap up. Q & A
- (Originally presented in KL, Malaysia, Dec 2011)
Internet invented ca 1970
Based on TCP/IP
First users: DoD, the big American universities
First applications: telnet, ftp
First killer app: E-mail
Second killer app: World Wide Web
Parallel technological development: Computers
getting ever smaller physically, but
with ever increasing capacity and performance
E-mail, RFCs 821, and 822 in 1982:
… In 1984, CCITT drafted its X.400 recommendation. …
How a system hacked
together by a handful of computer science graduate students beat an
official international standard strongly backed by all the PTTs in the
world, many governments, and a substantial part of the computer industry
brings to mind the Biblical story of David and Goliath.
World Wide Web:
The initial proposal for a web of linked documents came from CERN
physicist Tim Berners-Lee in March 1989. The first (text based) prototype
was operational 18 months later. In December 1991, a public demonstration
was given at the Hypertext '91 conference in San Antonio, Texas.
… In 1994, CERN and M.I.T. signed an agreement setting up the
World Wide Web Consortium
(sometimes abbreviated as W3C, an
organization devoted to further developing the Web,
standardizing protocols, and encouraging interoperability between sites.
Berners-Lee became the director. (Tanenbaum, 2003)
The Internet of Things
The Internet of Things refers to uniquely identifiable objects
(things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like
structure. The term Internet of Things was first used by Kevin
Ashton in 1999. (Ashton, 1999)
In search of other definitions I found that they were all
conceptual. Perhaps the best way to describe IoT is
something along these lines:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is to the internet as a whole what
Web 2.0 was to the web.
The Internet of Things is ... (one definition)
‘A world where physical objects are seamlessly
integrated into the information network, and
where the physical objects can become active
participants in business processes.
Services are available to interact with these
‘smart objects‘ over the Internet, query and
change their state and any information
associated with them, taking into account
security and privacy issues.‘
RFID, Sensor Networks etc. are just enabling technologies!
The Internet of Things is not synonymous with ubiquitous / pervasive
computing, the Internet Protocol (IP), communication technology,
embedded devices, its applications, the Internet of People or the
Intranet / Extranet of Things, yet it relies on all of these
The association of intelligent virtual representations (e.g.:
called avatars and embedded, hosted in the Cloud or centralized)
and physical objects are sometimes called "cyberobjects"[original
source in French].
Cyberobjects are then considered as autonomous actors of the
value chains they are involved in: able to perceive, analyze
and react in various contexts; although acting under the guidance
of human beings as programmed. Cyberobjects can then be assistants,
advisors, decision makers, etc; and can be considered as true
Agent (economics), helping to change existing economic or
organization models. In such a scenario, the conception of
avatars refers to artifical intelligence and Complex system.
What Do We Have? Hard facts!
TCP/IP as WAN technology
Ethernet, primarily as LAN technology
The two partially overlap on the LAN
IPv4 addresses are depleting, or are they?
IPv4 address space 0 - (232-1) = 4294967296.
Subdivisions, class A, B, and C addresses
Where Are We Going Architecturally?
Reasons for IPv4 addresses running out
IPv6 has started replacing IPv4, slowly.
IPv6 address space 0 - (2128-1)
These 3.402823669209385e+38 addresses makes this address space
7.922816251426434e+28 times bigger than that of IPv4
To illustrate: The mass of the earth is 5.97e+27 g
In IPv6 we have 5.7e+10 addresses per gram of matter on planet earth
Subdivisions, yes, again, but
Heterogenous Building Blocks
- Sensors & Actuators
- Mobile phones
- PLCs & Embedded systems
- WAN, LAN, PAN, …
- Mobile phone networks
- Wireless & Actuator networks
Where Are We Going Timewise?
Although only 21% of American wireless subscribers were using a
smartphone as of Q4 2009 compared to 19% in Q3 2009 and 14% at the
end of 2008, Nielsen expects smartphones to account for more than
half of the US mobile phone market by 2011. Nielsen predicts
smartphones will account for 24% of the US mobile phone market
in Q1 2010 and rise to about 33% market share by Q4 2010.
Growth will then accelerate in 2011, hitting 40% in Q1 2011 …
In this report it is stated that the 40% was reached mid 2011.
intomobile.com also quoting Nielsen (nielsen.com)
Regarding the PLC/Embedded area, I have no stats, but
from an employee at a Danish electrical utility: Most meters
in the country are monitored via the internet.
As we/I speak, they are creating apps so that you may follow
your consumption real time. Indirectly this means …
Where Are We Going Spatially?
In terms of geographical growth of the IoT, once again measured
by the penetration of smartphones in various countries and
|Rest Western Europe||31||41||64
|Rest Asia Pacific||8||10||16
Automatic reading of electricity meters
Unmanned pay stations on toll roads
Automatic reading of weather stations
Tracking persons in age care institutions (IoT_Comic_Book, 2011)
All the mobile phone location based apps
Traffic feedback to commuters
Cell phone as cash
My introductory refrigerator app
Waste management. According to (IoT_Comic_Book,
2011) this means that by supplying the garbage cans with some
Urban planning, again re (IoT_Comic_Book,
Interactive Street Sensing gathers data about the city.
Sensors on every lamppost in the city measure data about noise,
trafﬁc, environment, crowds, temperature – literally anything.
Healthcare. Meters and monitors placed on patients in
hospitals. Remotely watched.
Shopping advisor, based on record and interest
Smart orchard, sensor based irrigation, picking (IoT_Comic_Book, 2011)
House heating, thermostats with IP addresses, control by mobile device.
Home indoor lighting, bulbs with IP addresses, dimming by mobile device
Where Does That Lead Us?
Us, as in us, the Universities. What do we need to do
to make you, our students, the masters of the Internet
CS, Engineering. The curiosity to ask the questions
"Is it possible to make it smaller?", "Is it possible to make
it flexible, foldable?", "Is it possible to make it invisible?"
This is NOT a revolution it is a fact.
Communication. Content creators, the real heroes. They
tell the stories in such a way that we move nice to have, or
curious to have, to need to have.
Design, or designers. In as much as there are interactive
elements in the IoT, they make us either use or throw out
any given application. Focus on User eXperience,
the interface is king.
Fortune telling ;-) To our politicians, and our masters at
the universities, perhaps this is a new programme that we should
set out teaching. But hey, when I did my MSc in the UK, they
taught us Technology Foresight, so we actually can look into
Is There a Conclusion?
My answer: Do what we are doing, only more!
Ethically? You could say, do what we are doing, only less!
Should we rejoice?
Yes, because #1 is possible, we do it every day.
Should we worry? Yes, indeed, because #2 is a question.
We should stop and think,
do we need this, that or the other app, just because it
is possible. Ask yourself, is it good for you?
Thank you for your attention
Mirko Presser (ed.),
Inspiring the Internet of Things,
Alexandra Institute. Ref. 2011-12-03
Internet of Things,
SAP Research 2009. Ref. 2011-12-03
Dieter Uckelmann, Mark Harrison, Florian Michahelles,
An Architectural Approach Towards the
Future Internet of Things
Springer, Berlin (2011)
Andrew S. Tanenbaum,
Prentice Hall, 2003. Ref. 2011-12-03